AIX 5L Configuring TCP/IP (Unit 01, Part 2): TCP/IP Concepts

Connectionless versus Connection Oriented
—————————————————————-
TCP – Connection Oriented
– Higher Service enviroment including error detection and retransmission
UDP – Connectionless
– Low Service environment

UDP Protocol
———————
A connectionless application interface to IP
Provides a “multiplexor/demultiplexor” function for sending/receiving IP datagrams
Uses ports
Does not assure datagram delivery or duplication protection

TCP Protocol
———————
Reliable TCP Connection

The Window Principle (TCP)
—————————————–
Flow Control – Send Acknowledgement (ACK) for packets received
Determines Window Size

Window Size – # of Packets to send before an Acknowledgement is required before sending more packets

Some Standard TCP/IP Applications
——————————————————
FTP, TFTP, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, TELNET

Common Principles
– They use either UDP or TCP as the transport mechanism
They use the client-server model of interaction

TCP/IP Data Flow
—————————
Application (Data) – Data, Data…
TCP (Segment) – TCP Header, Data
IP (Packet) – IP Header, TCP Header, Data
Network Interface (Frame) – Interface Header, IP Header, TCP Header, Data, Interface Checksum

Subnetting
——————
Subnet 129.112.1
The outside internet sees only 1 network, Net 129.112 (First two bytes)
Use subnetting to use 3rd byte to indicate each subnet.

Subnetted Address
——————————
Address without subnetting
Network ID || Host ID

With subnetting
Address = Network ID || Subnet ID || Host ID
Mask = 111 … … … … 111 || 000 … 000

Subnetting Example
——————————
Class B address

1. Without Subnetting
Network Id || Host Id
129.112. || 3.7

2. With Subnetting
Subnetwork Id || Host Id
129.112.3 || 7 – Address
255.255.255 || 0 – Mask

Default Subnet Masks
——————————–
Class A – 255.0.0.0
Class B – 255.255.0.0
Class C – 255.255.255.0

Subnet Mask Off-the-Byte Boundary
—————————————————-
Class B Address
10 || Net-Id || Host-Id
Subnet Mask
255.255.240.0
Subnet 1 – 129.112.16
Subnet 2 – 129.112.32
Subnet 3 – 129.112.64

IP Multicasting
———————–
Allows a group of nodes in a network to receive the same message
Each node maintains a list of multicast addresses to which it will respond
Useful in:
– Resource discovery
– Multimedia conferencing
Minimizes the network load

IP Multicast Addressing
————————————
A logical address filter mechanism in the adapter is used to determine whether or not to accept a incoming packet with a multicast destination address
Standard socket interface used to create multicast connections
Multicast addresses are Class D addresses
28 bits
1110 || Multicast address
224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

Exercise 1
—————-
Example #1
130.35.15.1 – Address
255.255.255.0 – Mask
Address class: B (128 – 191)
Default mask: 255.255.0.0
Network Id: 130.35.15
Host Id: .1

Example #2
220.10.25.3 – Address
Address class: C (192-228)
Default mask: 255.255.255.0
Network Id: 220.10.25
Host Id: .3

Example #3
9.19.115.89 – Address
255.255.240.0 – Mask
Address class: A (1 – 127)
Default mask: 255.0.0.0
Network Id: 9.19.112
Host Id: 0.0.3.89

Example #4
192.110.15.65 – Address
255.255.255.192 – Mask
Address class: C
Default class: 255.255.255.0
Network Id: 192.110.15.64
Host Id: 0.0.0.1

Example – Create at least three network addresses
200.1.2.0 – Address
255.255.255.0 – Mask
Address class: C
Default class: 255.255.255

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
128, 64, 32

200.1.2.32 (.33 – .62, Broadcast .63)
200.1.2.64 (.65 – .94, Broadcast .95)
200.1.2.96 (.97 – .126, Broadcast .125)
200.1.2.128
Note: Normally use lower addresses for routers, servers etc.

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